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The Bauhaus issued a magazine called Bauhaus and a series of books called "Bauhausbücher". Since the Weimar Republic lacked the quantity of raw materials available to the United States and Great Britain, it had to rely on the proficiency of a skilled labor force and an ability to export innovative and high quality goods.
Therefore, designers were needed and so was a new type of art education. The school's philosophy stated that the artist should be trained to work with the industry. Weimar was in the German state of Thuringia , and the Bauhaus school received state support from the Social Democrat -controlled Thuringian state government.
The school in Weimar experienced political pressure from conservative circles in Thuringian politics, increasingly so after as political tension rose. One condition placed on the Bauhaus in this new political environment was the exhibition of work undertaken at the school. This condition was met in with the Bauhaus' exhibition of the experimental Haus am Horn. On 26 December the Bauhaus issued a press release and setting the closure of the school for the end of March After the Bauhaus moved to Dessau, a school of industrial design with teachers and staff less antagonistic to the conservative political regime remained in Weimar.
This school was eventually known as the Technical University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, and in changed its name to Bauhaus-University Weimar.
Gropius's design for the Dessau facilities was a return to the futuristic Gropius of that had more in common with the International style lines of the Fagus Factory than the stripped down Neo-classical of the Werkbund pavilion or the Völkisch Sommerfeld House.
Meyer became director when Gropius resigned in February ,  and brought the Bauhaus its two most significant building commissions, both of which still exist: Meyer favored measurements and calculations in his presentations to clients, along with the use of off-the-shelf architectural components to reduce costs. This approach proved attractive to potential clients. The school turned its first profit under his leadership in But Meyer also generated a great deal of conflict.
As a radical functionalist, he had no patience with the aesthetic program, and forced the resignations of Herbert Bayer , Marcel Breuer , and other long-time instructors. Even though Meyer shifted the orientation of the school further to the left than it had been under Gropius, he didn't want the school to become a tool of left-wing party politics. He prevented the formation of a student communist cell, and in the increasingly dangerous political atmosphere, this became a threat to the existence of the Dessau school.
Dessau mayor Fritz Hesse fired him in the summer of Mies was appointed in , and immediately interviewed each student, dismissing those that he deemed uncommitted. Mies halted the school's manufacture of goods so that the school could focus on teaching. Mies appointed no new faculty other than his close confidant Lilly Reich.
When they gained control of the Dessau City Council they moved to close the school. In late , Mies rented a derelict factory in Berlin Birkbusch Street 49 to use as the new Bauhaus with his own money. The students and faculty rehabilitated the building, painting the interior white. The school operated for ten months without further interference from the Nazi Party. In , the Gestapo closed down the Berlin school. Mies protested the decision, eventually speaking to the head of the Gestapo, who agreed to allow the school to re-open.
However, shortly after receiving a letter permitting the opening of the Bauhaus, Mies and the other faculty agreed to voluntarily shut down the school [ when? Although neither the Nazi Party nor Adolf Hitler had a cohesive architectural policy before they came to power in , Nazi writers like Wilhelm Frick and Alfred Rosenberg had already labeled the Bauhaus "un-German" and criticized its modernist styles, deliberately generating public controversy over issues like flat roofs.
Increasingly through the early s, they characterized the Bauhaus as a front for communists and social liberals. Indeed, a number of communist students loyal to Meyer moved to the Soviet Union when he was fired in Even before the Nazis came to power, political pressure on Bauhaus had increased. The Nazi movement, from nearly the start, denounced the Bauhaus for its " degenerate art ", and the Nazi regime was determined to crack down on what it saw as the foreign, probably Jewish influences of "cosmopolitan modernism".
Emigrants did succeed, however, in spreading the concepts of the Bauhaus to other countries, including the "New Bauhaus" of Chicago: When Hitler's chief engineer, Fritz Todt , began opening the new autobahn highways in , many of the bridges and service stations were "bold examples of modernism"—among those submitting designs was Mies van der Rohe.
The paradox of the early Bauhaus was that, although its manifesto proclaimed that the aim of all creative activity was building,  the school did not offer classes in architecture until During the years under Gropius — , he and his partner Adolf Meyer observed no real distinction between the output of his architectural office and the school.
So the built output of Bauhaus architecture in these years is the output of Gropius: The definitive Bauhaus building in Dessau is also attributed to Gropius. Apart from contributions to the Haus am Horn , student architectural work amounted to un-built projects, interior finishes, and craft work like cabinets, chairs and pottery. In the next two years under Meyer, the architectural focus shifted away from aesthetics and towards functionality.
There were major commissions: Meyer's approach was to research users' needs and scientifically develop the design solution. Mies van der Rohe repudiated Meyer's politics, his supporters, and his architectural approach. As opposed to Gropius's "study of essentials", and Meyer's research into user requirements, Mies advocated a "spatial implementation of intellectual decisions", which effectively meant an adoption of his own aesthetics.
Neither van der Rohe nor his Bauhaus students saw any projects built during the s. The popular conception of the Bauhaus as the source of extensive Weimar-era working housing is not accurate. Two projects, the apartment building project in Dessau and the Törten row housing also in Dessau, fall in that category, but developing worker housing was not the first priority of Gropius nor Mies. It was the Bauhaus contemporaries Bruno Taut , Hans Poelzig and particularly Ernst May , as the city architects of Berlin, Dresden and Frankfurt respectively, who are rightfully credited with the thousands of socially progressive housing units built in Weimar Germany.
The Bauhaus had a major impact on art and architecture trends in Western Europe, the United States, Canada and Israel in the decades following its demise, as many of the artists involved fled, or were exiled by, the Nazi regime. Tel Aviv in was named to the list of world heritage sites by the UN due to its abundance of Bauhaus architecture;   it had some 4, Bauhaus buildings erected from onwards.
In , the Hungarian painter Alexander Bortnyik founded a school of design in Budapest called Miihely also "Muhely"  or "Mugely"  , which means "the studio". Victor Vasarely , a pioneer of Op Art , studied at this school before establishing in Paris in Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer , and Moholy-Nagy re-assembled in Britain during the mid s to live and work in the Isokon project before the war caught up with them.
Gropius and Breuer went to teach at the Harvard Graduate School of Design and worked together before their professional split. The Harvard School was enormously influential in America in the late s and early s, producing such students as Philip Johnson , I. Pei , Lawrence Halprin and Paul Rudolph , among many others. In the late s, Mies van der Rohe re-settled in Chicago, enjoyed the sponsorship of the influential Philip Johnson , and became one of the pre-eminent architects in the world.
Moholy-Nagy also went to Chicago and founded the New Bauhaus school under the sponsorship of industrialist and philanthropist Walter Paepcke. Printmaker and painter Werner Drewes was also largely responsible for bringing the Bauhaus aesthetic to America and taught at both Columbia University and Washington University in St.
The school is notable for its inclusion of semiotics as a field of study. The school closed in , but the "Ulm Model" concept continues to influence international design education. The influence of the Bauhaus on design education was significant. One of the main objectives of the Bauhaus was to unify art, craft, and technology, and this approach was incorporated into the curriculum of the Bauhaus.
The structure of the Bauhaus Vorkurs preliminary course reflected a pragmatic approach to integrating theory and application. In their first year, students learnt the basic elements and principles of design and colour theory, and experimented with a range of materials and processes.
The colour and design syllabus of the Shillito Design School was firmly underpinned by the theories and ideologies of the Bauhaus. Its first year foundational course mimicked the Vorkurs and focused on the elements and principles of design plus colour theory and application. The founder of the school, Phyllis Shillito, which opened in and closed in , firmly believed that "A student who has mastered the basic principles of design, can design anything from a dress to a kitchen stove".
One of the most important contributions of the Bauhaus is in the field of modern furniture design. Although Stam had worked on the design of the Bauhaus's exhibit in Weimar, and guest-lectured at the Bauhaus later in the s, he was not formally associated with the school, and he and Breuer had worked independently on the cantilever concept, thus leading to the patent dispute.
The single most profitable tangible product of the Bauhaus was its wallpaper. The physical plant at Dessau survived World War II and was operated as a design school with some architectural facilities by the German Democratic Republic.
This included live stage productions in the Bauhaus theater under the name of Bauhausbühne "Bauhaus Stage". After German reunification , a reorganized school continued in the same building, with no essential continuity with the Bauhaus under Gropius in the early s.
This effort has been supported by the Bauhaus-Dessau Foundation which was founded in as a public institution. Later evaluation of the Bauhaus design credo was critical of its flawed recognition of the human element, an acknowledgment of "… the dated, unattractive aspects of the Bauhaus as a projection of utopia marked by mechanistic views of human nature…Home hygiene without home atmosphere.
Tel Aviv has the largest number of buildings in this style of any city in the world. Established in , Bauhaus Center Tel Aviv is an organization dedicated to the ongoing documentation of the architectural heritage. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bauhaus disambiguation.
Women of the Bauhaus. Oxford University Press, 4th edn. Fleming, John; Honour, Hugh 5th ed.