Buckow & The Brecht-Weigel Haus
Brandenburg is bounded by the German state of Mecklenburg—West Pomerania to the north, by Poland to the east, and by the states of Saxony to the south, Saxony-Anhalt to the west, and Lower Saxony to the northwest. Embedded within the middle of Brandenburg is the national capital, Berlin , a state in its own right.
Area 11, square miles 29, square km. The landscape of present-day Brandenburg is very much the product of glaciation. Most of the state consists of a sandy plain that is interspersed with numerous fertile areas and stretches of pine and fir forests.
Ironically, the ecology of the region benefited from decades of the relative economic neglect of the area. The state lies wholly within the North European Plain see European Plain and has a moderate climate, determined both by maritime influences, which predominate in areas to the west, and by continental influences, which affect the east. It is mostly inhabited by ethnic Germans; a small indigenous Slavic group, the Sorbs concentrated in the southeastern part of the state ; and a relatively small immigrant population.
Unlike the other eastern German states, Brandenburg experienced a positive rate of population growth from to , largely as the result of the suburbanization of the economic activities and population of Berlin. Since , however, the population trajectory for Brandenburg has reversed, though growth has continued in suburban areas near Berlin, which were among the very few areas within eastern Germany that grew early in the century.
While still a dominating factor on the landscape, agriculture plays a relatively small role in terms of economic output and employment in Brandenburg. Rye, wheat, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, rape, and fodder crops are the principal crops grown. Livestock raising and the market gardening of fruits and vegetables, especially apples, cherries, asparagus, peas, and cucumbers, are also important.
Dairying, especially for the production of butter and cheese, is another significant economic activity. The major industrial resource in Brandenburg is lignite , which is mined in the Lusatia field, located in the southeastern part of the state and in neighbouring Saxony.
Output and employment in this sector burgeoned under the autarkic economic policies of East Germany, but following unification both output and employment plummeted drastically, the latter by some nine-tenths. Still, the Lusatia field produces about one-fifth of all German lignite, which serves as a resource for producing energy, chemicals, and other products. Two positive impacts of reduced coal mining have been ongoing work to revegetate the extensive open-pit mines and greatly improved air quality, resulting from both the closing of many pollution-spewing plants and the fitting of others with filters that reduce airborne exhaust.
Following unification many factories closed, employment declined, and unemployment increased dramatically, to about one-sixth of the workforce, a level that changed little in the mid- and late s and the first years of the new century. Brandenburg has a varied industrial base, with engineering, steelmaking, metalworking, paper production, food processing , petroleum refining , mining, and the production of energy from lignite most well represented.
The Brandenburg-Berlin region, including especially Potsdam in Brandenburg, is the site of an emerging cluster of biotechnology research-and-development activities. The larger towns in Brandenburg serve as regional centres for service activities, while the important Studio Babelsberg in Potsdam produces both films and television programming for a wider clientele.
The state also gained service-sector jobs in the transportation, wholesale, and retail sectors as the result of growth and suburbanization in the Berlin region. Brandenburg has a modest-sized tourist sector that largely serves Germans, most notably Berliners, rather than foreign visitors.
In addition to the Lower Oder Valley National Park, primary natural attractions include the lovely Spreewald in the southeast and the lake country in the north. Brandenburg is served by many major east-west transport routes, including rail links and highways between both eastern and western Germany and eastern and western Europe.
In addition, several navigable rivers and canals cross Brandenburg, again primarily with an east-west orientation, including the Elbe-Havel, Oder-Spree, and Oder-Havel canals, which link the major rivers of the region for barge traffic. See also Havel , Spree , and Elbe rivers. Most of these routes have been improved and expanded since unification. In addition, Schönefeld airport, serving Berlin and located near the border between the two states, underwent expansion beginning in the late s.
The major cultural centre in Brandenburg is Potsdam, with its many architecturally significant buildings associated with Prussian royalty, some of which house important art collections. The city hosts the annual Potsdam Sanssouci Music Festival.
Other notable music festivals are held each year at the Rheinsberg Palace in the northern part of the state and at the ruins of Chorin Abbey in the northeast. The historic principality of Brandenburg originated as a margravate, or mark, that was an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire. Brandenburg was the nucleus of the dynastic power on which the kingdom of Prussia was founded, and it was merged administratively with that kingdom in It became a province of Prussia in and remained such after the unification of Germany and until the end of World War II.
After the war that part of Brandenburg west of the Oder River was constituted as a separate state upon the dissolution of Prussia by the Allies in The state of Brandenburg was re-created primarily out of the former East German districts of Potsdam, Frankfurt, and Cottbus in the process of the unification of East and West Germany in Subsequent efforts to merge the separate administrative entities of Berlin and Brandenburg into a single state have so far been unsuccessful.
We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. The champion of the southwest league, which is giving up its second playoff place, will be promoted automatically in the next two seasons.
Additionally there will be two teams promoted from the other four regional leagues. In the —19 season, the champion of the northeast league will also be promoted directly. The winner of the third guaranteed promotion place will be decided by the drawing of lots. The remaining two regional league champions of the —19 season will face off in a two-legged playoff determining the fourth promotion place. The two regional leagues whose teams took part in the playoff will automatically have promotion places for the —20 season.
As a result, the third division will have four relegation places. A club that wants to play in the Regionalliga must meet two conditions. First, the team must qualify for the league. Second, the club must obtain a license from the DFB. This license is granted if the club can prove that they are financially sound, that their stadium conforms to the security regulations, and that they have a working youth section. The champions of each division take part in the promotion round to the 3.
Liga at the end of the season. Reserve teams will also be eligible for promotion unless the respective first team is playing in the 3. The bottom three teams of each division are demoted to their respective Oberliga. In the Regionalliga Nord, the fourth-to-last team will also be demoted. As clubs in the Regionalliga must have their teams licensed by the DFB on a per-season basis, a team may also be relegated by having its license revoked or by going into administration.
Reserve teams are also relegated when the respective first team is relegated to the 3. Matchday squads in the Regionalliga must include at least six players of German nationality and under the age of 24, two under the age of 21, and a maximum of three non-EU players.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the men's football regional leagues in Germany. For the division in Austrian football, see Austrian Regionalliga. For other uses, see Regionalliga disambiguation.
Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 8 December Archived from the original on 27 November Retrieved 28 October Retrieved 2 September Archived from the original on 10 August Regionalliga Nord IV — —19 clubs. Regionalliga Nordost IV — —19 clubs. Regionalliga West IV — —19 clubs. Regionalliga Südwest IV — —19 clubs.
SC Tasmania Berlin. SC Wacker 04 Berlin.